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The Use of Full-Line Forcing Contracts in the Video Rental Industry

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  • Katherine Ho
  • Justin Ho
  • Julie Holland Mortimer

Abstract

Bundling is at the forefront of many policy debates as new technologies allow firms to implement more complex bundling arrangements. Realistic analyses of bundling--particularly between suppliers and retailers--require detailed data on both supply arrangements and consumer demand. We analyze firms' use of bundling as a vertical restraint (known as full-line forcing) using extensive supply and demand data from the video rental industry. Our model captures key details of the market that determine firms' contractual choices, and sheds light on the implications of these decisions. The empirical approach provides a model for how to analyze bundling when detailed data are available. (JEL D86, L14, L81, L82)

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File URL: http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/aer.102.2.686
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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by American Economic Association in its journal American Economic Review.

Volume (Year): 102 (2012)
Issue (Month): 2 (April)
Pages: 686-719

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Handle: RePEc:aea:aecrev:v:102:y:2012:i:2:p:686-719

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References

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  1. Chenghuan Sean Chu & Phillip Leslie & Alan Sorensen, 2006. "Nearly Optimal Pricing for Multiproduct Firms," 2006 Meeting Papers 830, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  2. Cardell, N. Scott, 1997. "Variance Components Structures for the Extreme-Value and Logistic Distributions with Application to Models of Heterogeneity," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 13(02), pages 185-213, April.
  3. Gregory Crawford, 2008. "The discriminatory incentives to bundle in the cable television industry," Quantitative Marketing and Economics, Springer, vol. 6(1), pages 41-78, March.
  4. Justin Ho & Katherine Ho & Julie Holland Mortimer, 2008. "The Use of Full-line Forcing Contracts in the Video Rental Industry," NBER Working Papers 14588, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. McAfee, R Preston & McMillan, John & Whinston, Michael D, 1989. "Multiproduct Monopoly, Commodity Bundling, and Correlation of Values," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 104(2), pages 371-83, May.
  6. Christopher T. Conlon & Julie Holland Mortimer, 2010. "Demand Estimation Under Incomplete Product Availability," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 799, Boston College Department of Economics, revised 07 Aug 2012.
  7. Chenghuan Sean Chu & Phillip Leslie & Alan Sorensen, 2011. "Bundle-Size Pricing as an Approximation to Mixed Bundling," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 101(1), pages 263-303, February.
  8. Dennis W. Carlton & Michael Waldman, 1998. "The Strategic Use Of Tying To Preserve And Create Market Power In Evolving Industries," University of Chicago - George G. Stigler Center for Study of Economy and State 145, Chicago - Center for Study of Economy and State.
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  11. Schmalensee, Richard, 1982. "Antitrust and the New Industrial Economics," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(2), pages 24-28, May.
  12. Julie H. Mortimer, 2008. "Vertical Contracts in the Video Rental Industry -super-1," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 75(1), pages 165-199.
  13. Justin Ho & Katherine Ho & Julie Holland Mortimer, 2012. "Analyzing the Welfare Impacts of Full-line Forcing Contracts," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 60(3), pages 468-498, 09.
  14. Adams, William James & Yellen, Janet L, 1976. "Commodity Bundling and the Burden of Monopoly," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 90(3), pages 475-98, August.
  15. Choi, Jay Pil & Stefanadis, Christodoulos, 2001. "Tying, Investment, and the Dynamic Leverage Theory," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 32(1), pages 52-71, Spring.
  16. Steven T. Berry, 1994. "Estimating Discrete-Choice Models of Product Differentiation," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 25(2), pages 242-262, Summer.
  17. Posner, Richard A, 1975. "The Social Costs of Monopoly and Regulation," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 83(4), pages 807-27, August.
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  19. Gregory S. Crawford & Ali Yurukoglu, 2012. "The Welfare Effects of Bundling in Multichannel Television Markets," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(2), pages 643-85, April.
  20. Schmalensee, Richard, 1982. "Commodity Bundling by Single-Product Monopolies," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 25(1), pages 67-71, April.
  21. Carbajo, Jose & de Meza, David & Seidmann, Daniel J, 1990. "A Strategic Motivation for Commodity Bundling," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(3), pages 283-98, March.
  22. Julie Holland Mortimer, 2007. "Price Discrimination, Copyright Law, and Technological Innovation: Evidence From The Introduction of DVDs," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 122(3), pages 1307-1350, 08.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Naoaki Minamihashi, 2012. "Natural Monopoly and Distorted Competition: Evidence from Unbundling Fiber-Optic Networks," Working Papers 12-26, Bank of Canada.
  2. Kai-Uwe Kuhn & Francine Lafontaine & Ying Fan, 2013. "Financial Constraints and Franchising Decisions," 2013 Meeting Papers 933, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  3. Joao Macieira & Pedro Pereira & Joao Vareda, 2013. "Bundling Incentives in Markets with Product Complementarities: The Case of Triple-Play," Working Papers 13-15, NET Institute.
  4. Katherine Ho & Justin Ho & Julie Holland Mortimer, 2012. "The Use of Full-Line Forcing Contracts in the Video Rental Industry," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(2), pages 686-719, April.
  5. Matthew Grennan, 2013. "Price Discrimination and Bargaining: Empirical Evidence from Medical Devices," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 103(1), pages 145-77, February.
  6. Gabriel Natividad & Olav Sorenson, 2011. "Spread Too Thin: Uncertainty Shocks and Diseconomies of Scope," Working Papers 11-04, NET Institute.

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